Institute of Hydrology, FreiburgThe impact of urbanisation on integrated catchment hydrology and water resources, West Bank and Israel
a trilateral research project funded by the German Science Foundation (DFG)




Urban Monitoring

Spring Monitoring

Field Observations


Large Scale
Rainfall-Runoff Modelling


Project Members


In natural terrain outside the city, runoff generation on a steep (25%) hillslope was studied by a two-days sprinkling experiment on a 18 ´ 10 m plot.

During the first day three spells of 24.1 mm hr-1 (12.3 mm), 27.8 mm hr-1 (12.3 mm) and 14.4 mm hr-1 (12.5 mm) were applied, almost saturating the runoff plot. On the second day, 20 hours later, two spells of 18.7 mm hr-1 (34.3 mm) and 35.2 mm hr-1 (25.4 mm) followed.

Surface runoff was a combination of infiltration excess runoff from rocky portions of the plot and saturation excess runoff from areas covered by soil. Soil saturation was accelerated by lateral runoff from adjacent rocky areas. Once the plot was saturated, 80-90% of the applied rainfall became surface runoff.

Significantly different concentrations of chloride, sulphate and nitrate ions in the sprinkled water on two successive days served as tracers. During the second day a two-component hydrograph separation pointed to the importance of shallow reservoirs playing active parts in runoff generation.

About 14% of the flow collected during the second day originated from water applied during the first day. During the second day of sprinkling, both water sources obviously mixed in saturated soil reservoirs and contributed in variable percentages to surface flow.

It is hypothesized that, at least during high magnitude rainfall, the steep rocky slopes investigated might be regarded as flood generating zones rather than areas of pronounced recharge into the underlying Yarkon-Taninim Aquifer.

Downslope view on the plot during sprinklingThe lower end of the plot